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Spiraling Empiricism vs. Science: The Stewardship Dilemma of Breakthrough Fungal Infections


Pharmacists: 0.75 contact hour (0.075 CEUs)

Released: November 06, 2022

Expiration: November 06, 2024


Provided by

Provided by ProCE, LLC in partnership with the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP).

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Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP)

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Additional Information

Program Medium

This program has been made available online.

A product of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Education Center (SIDPEC) 

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 NOTE: If you attended this live CE activity that was held on November 6, 2021 at the SIDP Annual Meeting AND received CE credit (i.e. a pharmacist CE statement with ACPE Universal Activity Number 0221-9999-21-274-L01-P), you are NOT eligible to also receive CE credit for this home-study activity.


This activity will focus on breakthrough fungal infections and potential issues on the horizon as well as their importance from a stewardship perspective. Faculty will discuss suggestions and examples of dealing with the problems of breakthrough fungal infections.

This is a featured CE activity on the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Education Center (SIDPEC) website. SIDPEC is the educational hub of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP). The SIDPEC portal provides educational activities on infectious disease pharmacotherapy for clinical pharmacists, health?systems pharmacists, community pharmacists, and other allied?health disciplines.

Learning Objectives

The target audience for this activity is pharmacists. At the completion of this activity, the participant will be able to:

  • Review recently proposed consensus definitions for breakthrough fungal disease.
  • Review common dogmas that contribute to spiraling empiricism with antifungal therapy.
  • Summarize the current limitations in diagnostic tools for invasive fungal disease.
  • Discuss how antifungal susceptibility testing results can be applied in the absence of susceptibility breakpoints.
  • Discuss the possible challenges on the horizon with investigational antifungals.


Russell Lewis, Pharm.D., FCCP
Associate Professor of Medicine-Infectious Diseases
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences
University of Bologna, Italy


Release Date: November 6, 2021
Expiration Date: November 6, 2024
BCIDP Expiration Date: November 6, 2022


ACPE LogoThis activity is jointly provided by ProCE, LLC and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. ProCE, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education. ACPE Universal Activity Number 0221-9999-21-274-H01-P has been assigned to this home-study knowledge-based activity. This activity is approved for 0.75 contact hour (0.075 CEU) in states that recognize ACPE providers. The activity is provided at no cost to participants. Statements of completion will be issued online at upon completion of the evaluation and post-test with a score of 70% or higher. Proof of completion will be posted in NABP CPE Monitor profiles. No partial credit will be given.


The Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) is accredited by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) as a provider of board certified infectious diseases pharmacist (BCIDP) credit. A BCIDP statement of credit will be issued online upon successful completion of a post-test and online evaluation. The post-test must be successfully completed in only one attempt. No partial credit will be given. BCIDP accreditation begins 11/6/2021 for this activity and is available for one year from this date.Recertification Criteria for Infectious Diseases Pharmacy: BCIDP recertifying via continuing education are required to earn 100 hours of continuing education credit provided by the joint program offered by the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP), American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP). Infectious Diseases Pharmacy Specialty Recertification Courses offered by any of the approved providers may only be completed for recertification credit up to two times, in nonconsecutive years, during the 7-year recertification cycle. Candidates should note that there are expiration dates associated with earning BPS recertification credit. BPS will only award recertification credit for modules based on the completion and submission date of the post-test assessment. For example, a module completed and submitted on October 20 of a particular year will only be credited for that year, even if the due date of the post-test is in January of the following year. View all recertification criteria on the BPS website at


It is the policy of ProCE, LLC to ensure balance, independence, objectivity and scientific rigor in all of its continuing education activities. Faculty must disclose to participants any significant financial interest or affiliation with companies that manufacture or market products discussed in this activity. Russell Lewis has received research support from Merck & Co, Gilead Sciences and fees for speaking/advisory for Gilead, F2G, Anvir, Cidara Therapeutics.

The planners and content peer reviewers from ProCE, LLC and SIDP do not have any relevant financial relationships to disclose.


No external support has been received for this activity.The material presented in this CE activity does not reflect the views of ProCE, LLC or the commercial sponsor. These materials may discuss uses and dosages for therapeutic products, processes, procedures and inferred diagnoses that have not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. A qualified health care professional should be consulted before using any therapeutic product discussed. All readers and continuing education participants should verify all information and data before treating patients or employing any therapies described in this continuing education activity.